Macam-macam teks

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 

Analytical Exposition
Definition
Analytical exposition text is a text that elaborates the writer’s idea about the phenomenon surrounding.
Purpose: ·
To persuade the reader or listener that there is something that, certainly, needs to get attention · To analyze a topic and to persuade the reader that this opinion is correct and supported by arguments Examples: argumentative essay, exploratory essay

Generic Structure:
1. Thesis :
    Introduces the topic and shows speaker or writer’s position; Outlines of the arguments to be
    presented.
2. Arguments :
    It consists about Point and Elaboration Point, states the main argument. Elaboration: develops
    and supports each point of argument
3. Conclusion :
    Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writer’s position

Language Features: ·
Focus on generic human and non human participants.
· Use mental prosesses. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something,
  for example: realize, feel, etc.
· Need material processes. It is used to state what happens, for example: has polluted, etc.
· Use of simple    present tense.
· Use of relational processes.
· Use of internal conjunction to state argument.
· Reasoning through casual conjunction or nominalization.

The example of Analytical Exposition:

                                                     Cars should be banned in the city
Thesis                   Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause
                              a lot of road  deaths and other accidents.
Arguments            Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the
                              world.Carsemit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer,
                              and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die
                              from them.Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars
                              commonly hit pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our
                              roads biggest killers. Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may
                              find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and especially talk
                              to someone.
Reiteration            In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed.

                                               Laptop as  Students’ Friend
Conventionally, students need book, pen, eraser, drawing book, ruler  and such other stuff. Additionally, in this multimedia era, students need more to reach their   progressive development. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. First, modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk, this method will help student to get better understanding. Secondly, finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. The students just need to brows that online shop, decide which computer or laptop they need, and then complete the transaction. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students’ houses. That is really easy and save time and money. From all of that, having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Students just need to decide which type they really need.

ANECDOTE

Purpose:
1. To share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident.
2. Anecdote usually deals with something unexpected or out of the ordinary.

Generic Structure:
1. ABSTRACT : signals the retelling of an unusual incident
2. ORIENTATION : sets the scene (when and where)
3. CRISIS : provides details of the unusual incident
4. REACTION : reaction to crisis
5. CODA (optional) : reflection on or evaluation of the incident

Language Features:
1. Use of material processes/action verbs to tell what happened
2. Use of exclamations (e.g. ‘guess what?!’ ; ‘I couldn’t believe it!’)
3. Use of intensifiers (e.g. ‘really?!’; ‘very amazing’)
4. Use of temporal conjunctions (e.g. and, then)

The example of Anecdote:
                                                                           SNAKE IN THE BATHROOM
Abstract                            How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too!
Orientation                       We had just moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that
                                          everything was  in a terrible mess. Anna and I decided we would clean the
                                          bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap.
Crisis                                Suddenly to my horror, a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. Then out
                                         slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the
                                         slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us.
Incident For an instant     I stood there quite paralysed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily
                                         came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom. Anna, who
                                         was only three at the time, was quite interested in the whole business.
                                         Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or she’d probably have leant over
                                         the bath to get a better look!
Coda                                We found out later that it was a black mamba, a poisonous kind of snake. It
                                         had obviously been fast asleep, curled up at the bottom of the nice warm
                                         water-pipe. It must have had an awful shock when the cold water came
                                         trickling down! But nothing to the shock I got! Ever since then I’ve always
                                         put the plug in firmly before running the bath water.

                                                                          PLUMBER
                                         Mr. Brown was very good at fixing things around the house when they
                                         broke. One day he went to another city to do some works there, and his
                                         wife was alone in the house. While Mr. Brown was away, one of the
                                         faucets on the bathtub broke. Mrs. Brown didn’t know much about fixing
                                         broken faucets, so she telephoned a plumber. The plumber came to the
                                         house that afternoon and fixed the faucet in a few minutes. When he
                                         finished, he gave Mrs. Brown his bill for the work. She looked at it for
                                         several seconds and then said, “Your prices are very high, aren’t they? Do
                                         you know, the doctor costs less than this when he comes to the house?”
                                         Yes, I know,” answered the plumber. “I know that very well, because I was
                                         a doctor until I was lucky enough to find this job a few months ago.”

DESCRIPTION 

Definition
Descriptive texts are the texts which are used to describe about a particular place, person or thing. Descriptions are almost the same as report text. A descriptive text focuses on a specific thing and its specific features. A report usually deals with things in general. Descriptions can be used in textbook, encyclopedias, scientific magazines, historical texts, factual reading book, magazines etc

Purpose:
To describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.

Generic Structure:
1. Identification                 : identifies the phenomenon to be described
2. Description of Features : describes features in order of importance

Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb “Have” (have, has, had) in order to give detail description of the object’s
    features
3. Using of be (is, am, are, was, were) for the identification and showing qualities
4. Using adjectives in describing especially the qualities.

NOTES:
1. Difference between descriptive and reports can be seen as follow: descriptive texts talk about one
    specific  person, place or thing, e.g. “My Car” and reports classify and describe a whole class of
    thing, e.g. “Cars” (in general). In short, reports deal with general classification and description of
    thing while descriptive texts describe a particular thing.
2. The description can cover the facts about various aspects of an object (parts, colour, shape, habits,
    behaviour, personalities etc.

The examples of Descriptive Text: Lesser Slow Loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus)

Identification:
The Lesser Slow Loris is a Mammal which can clampo onto branches for long period of time. To help it do this, the Loris has a network of blood vessels, called rate mirabile in its forearms and shanks. Description of physical features: It is a small mammal which is 7-10 in long (175-250 mm) and can weigh as musch as 12 ounces or 340 grams. Being nocturnal the Loris has large round eyes. The Loris has no tail but has broad grasping feet. On its second toe it has a sharp claw. It also has an enlarge thumb and a reduced index finger. The Lesser Slow Loris is a plump animal with soft, thick fur ranging in color from light brown-grey to deep reddish-brown with a dark stripe down the back and neck. It has a long snout with comb like front teeth which are used in grooming. Description of habitat, floor and behaviour It is found in Southern Asia, Vietnam, Borneo and Sumatra. As it is tree-living, it is restricted to tropical rain forest. The diet of the Loris is made up fruit and leaves, tender shoots, insect, birds, small mammals and reptiles. It is nocturnal and sleeps by day rolled up in a ball.

Description of interesting features:
The Loris is a solitary animal which belongs to the family of Lorisidea bush baby and potto. It is very slow but deliberate climber. An interesting fact about the Lesser Slow Loris is that it has a single-note whistle. Around Bali Identification: Bali, the fabled “Island of the Gods” has been enchanting visitors for centuries with its rich cultural traditions and spectacular panoramas. Description: Bali offers many things, from lofty, mist enshrouded volcanoes and cool mountain lakes down through terraced rice fields to a golden strand lapped by azure waters, every square inch of Bali offers a fresh and unforgettable image. Description: No less enchanting are its people. Some 2,7 million souls whose artistry and piety are recognized throughout the world. Balinese Hinduism, a complex fusion of Indian cosmology, Tantric Buddism and homegrown mythology, is the primary faith of Bali’s inhabitants, and so deeply woven into the fabric of their daily lives that the line between the spiritual and the material is blurry at best.

DISCUSSION 

Purpose:
To present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) A discussion text is a kind of text to present at least two points of view about an issue. The function is to explore various perspectives before coming to an informed decision. Besides, to present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue (‘for’ points and ‘against’ points)

Generic Structure:
1. Issue · Statement · Preview
2. Arguments for against or statement of differing points of view · Pro-Point – Main Point (gagasan
    pokok 1) – Elaboration (uraian) – Main Point (gagasan pokok 2) – Elaboration (uraian 2) · Contra-
    Point – Main Point – Elaboration
3. Conclusion or Recommendation

Language Features:
· Focus on generic human and generic non-human Participants
· General noun stating category such as: uniforms, alcohol, etc.
· Relating verbs giving information about discussed issue, e.g.: smoking is harmful.
· Thinking verbs (mental process) expressing writer’s idea, e.g.: feel, believe, hope, etc.
· Use of Material process, e.g.: has produced, have developed, to feed, etc.
· Use of Relational Process, e.g.: is, are, cause, etc.
· Modalities, like: perhaps, must, should, should have been, could be, could have
· Use of Comparative: Contrastive and Consequential conjunctions to relate argument, e.g.: similarly,
   on the other hand, however, etc
· Adverb of Manner: hopefully, deliberately
· Detailed noun group, like: the dumping of unwanted kittens, etc.

The examples of Discussion Text:
The Advantages and the Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy

Issue: Nuclear energy is commonly offered as an alternative to overcome the crisis of energy. The debate of whether the use of nuclear energy is an appropriate choice has not come to an end. Some people agree with the utilization of it because of its benefits. Some others, however, disagree because of its risks to the environment.

Argument ‘pro’: Those who agree with the operation of nuclear reactors usually argue that nuclear energy is the only feasible choice to answer the ever-increasing energy needs. In their opinion, the other sources of energy: oil, coal, and liquid natural gas are not renewable and safe, while nuclear energy can be sustainable when produced in a safe way.

Argument “contra”: However, people who disagree with the use of nuclear energy point out that the waste of nuclear products can completely destroy the environment and human lives. A meltdown in a reactor, for example, usually results in the contamination of the surrounding soil and water. Take for example, the blow up of the nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Russia twenty years ago. The serious contamination imperiled people and the environment severely. conclusion: It is obvious that nuclear energy should be avoided because it really endangers the environment but what about a less polluted energy instead of nuclear energy? Is there any alternative energy to overcome the crisis of energy? Homework Issue Statement/Preview · I have been wondering if homework is necessary.

Argument Supported Point · I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise or work. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. Statement of different point of view/Contradicted idea: · But, my times, doing homework is not a great idea. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. Euthanasia Euthanasia is the act of intentionally causing the painless death of a sick person. In terms of a physician’s actions, it can be passive in that a physician plays no direct role in the death of the person or it can be active in that the physician does something directly to cause the death. Now the question: Do you think it is right for a physician to refuse to participate in active euthanasia? It is NEVER right for a physician or any one else to deliberately hasten a person’s death. This includes all forms of euthanasia-active and passive. To deliberately withhold food/fluids is to subject the person to a painful death-it is NOT a humane death. We are not in a position to determine the worth of a life. Every person has a soul-it is up to God to determine when he will take that soul from the shell that is the human body. We all have a duty to support life with ordinary means-food/fluids but we are not required to use extrordinary means-aggressive life support,dialysis,etc indefinitely. O.K. now, euthanasia (I think) is a type of suicide, whether or not you are sick. Physicians absolutley have the choice of NOT participating, in fact it should not be legal!!! Now if you put someone to death who was sick, or heck they dont even have to be sick, but you would look at your self everyday and be reminded of it. i bet you would feel like a murderer. If people want to die they can commit suicide in their own homes, makin someone else do it is not going to make it any better morally. Euthanasia is a sad, sad deal, please try to stop it. I believe if the person wants to die to end their life they should have the right to choose.I do not believe that the person should beable to have themselves killed if they’re not really suffering. Yes the person does have the right to kill him or herself. BUt the authourity stands in the way of that. If this is such a free country why can’t anyone participate in EUTHANASIA? If we have the right (at least in the U.S) to do whatever we want to with our lives, whether it be rich and famous or an alcoholic crack head, why is it that we can not decide when our life should end? It is ours, if we can kill the life that grows inside us, we should be allowed to also destroy the life that harbors others. Especially if that person is in pain and requests that some end their suffering. I don’t think you can allow one law with out the either. A life is a life, right?

EXPLANATION
Purpose:
· To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural
   phenomena.
· To give reasons why things are they are Examples: texts in science or social studies

Generic Structure:
1. General statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing

Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.

The example of Explanation Text:
A brief Summary of Speech Production

General Statement to Position the Reader Speech production is made possible by the specialised movements of our vocal organs that generate speech sounds waves.

Explanation
Like all sound production, speech production reguires a source of energy. The source of energy for speech production is the steady stream of air that comes from the lungs as we exhale. When we breathe normally, the air stream is inaudible. To become audible, the air stream must vibrate rapidly. The vocal cords cause the air stream to vibrate. Explanation As we talk, the vocal cords open and close rapidly, chopping up the steady air stream into a series of puffs. These puffs are heard as a buzz. But this buzz is still not speech.

Closing
To produce speech sounds, the vocal tract must change shape. During speech we continually alter the shape of the vocal track by moving the tongue and lips,etc. These movements change the acoustic properties of the vocal tract, which in turn produce the different sounds of speech.

How does Earthquake Happen?

Earthquake is one of the most destroying natural disasters. Unluckily it often happens in several regions. Recently a horrible earthquake has shaken West Sumatra. It has brought great damages. Why did it occur? Do you know how an earthquake happens? Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves. It make the ground shake. When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little. They don’t just slide smoothly. The rocks are still pushing against each other, but not moving. After a while, the rocks break because of all the pressure that’s built up. When the rocks break, the earthquake occurs. During the earthquake and afterward, the plates or blocks of rock start moving, and they continue to move until they get stuck again. The spot underground where the rock breaks is called the focus of the earthquake. The place right above the focus is called the epicenter of the earthquake. Rate this:

HORTATORY EXPOSITION
Definition
· Hortatory exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to explain the listeners or
   readers that something should or should not happen or be done.
· Hortatory exposition text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles,
   academic speech or lectures, research report etc.
· Hortatory expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people.
· To strengthen the explanation, the speaker or writer needs some arguments as the fundamental
   reasons of the given idea. In other words, this kind of text can be called as argumentation.

Purpose:
To persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done.

Generic Structure:
1. Thesis : Statement or announcement of issue concern
2. Arguments : Reasons for concern that will lead to recommendation
3. Recommendation : Statement of what should or should not happen or be done based on the given
    arguments

Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition

Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition?
In simple word. Analytical is the answer of “How is/will” while hortatory is the answer of “How should”. Analytical exposition will be best to describe “How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question” How should student do for his exam?” will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing should be done.

The examples of Hortatory Exposition:
Internet for students Nowadays, in modern era, I think internet is very important for students. As we all know internet has many function for supporting our life. They are, first, it gives us various information, news, knowledge etc. Students can search anything or something from internet. Take for example, they search about education, entertainment, knowledge etc that is in the world. Second, they can add their friends in all countries in the world by internet. Chatting, e-mail, facebook, twitter, interpals are some examples of internet facility to have many friends. Besides, they can share, communicate, discuss and so on. From my arguments above, as student, we should use internet facility well to get knowledge, friends, information etc. Watching TV Thesis: Is it important to know what your kids are watching? Of course it is. Television can expose your children to things that you have tried to protect them from, especially violence, drug abuse, etc.

Argument 1: One study demonstrated that watching too much TV during the day or at bedtime often causes bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay and anxiety around sleep, followed by shortened sleep duration. Argument 2: Another study found a significant association between the amount of time spent watching television during adolescence and early adulthood, and the like hood of subsequent aggressive acts against others. Argument 3: Meanwhile, many studies have found an association between kids watching a lot of TV, being inactive and overweight.

Recommendation:
Considering some facts above, protect your children with some following tips: 1. Limit television viewing to 1-2 hours each day. 2. Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their bedrooms. 3. Review the ratings of TV shows that your children watch. 4. Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening during the show.

NARRATIVE 
Definition
A narrative text is a story that is created in a constructive format that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events.

Purpose: · It is used to amuse/entertain the readers that is to gain and hold the reader’s interest in a story. · It is used to teach and inform the writer’s reflections on experience · It can be imaginary or factual (fairy tales, mysteries, fables, romances, adventure stories, mythhs and legends), or it can also be a complicated event that leads to a crises that finally find a solution

Generic Structure:
1. Orientation Sets the scene: where and when the story happened, introduces the participants of the
    story: who and what is involved in the story.
2. Complication Tells the beginning of the problem which leads to the crisis (climax) of the main
    participants.
3. Resolution The problem (the crisis) is resolved, either in a happy ending or in sad (tragic) ending. 4. Reorientation This is a closing remark to the story and it is optional. It consists of a moral lesson,
    advice or teaching from the writer.

Language Features:
· A narrative focuses on specific participants: often individual or participants with defines identities. 
  Major participants are human, or sometimes animals with human characteristic.
· Mainly use action, verbal or mental processes (verbs of perception: think, realize, feel, etc.)
· It usually use past tenses (Simple Past Tense and Past Continuous Tense).
· Direct and indirect speeches are often used (some dialogs are used in the story and the tense can
  change).
· Descriptive language is used to create listeners’ or readers’ imagination.
· Can be written in first person (I, We) or third person (he, she, and they) ( In choose – your-own-
   advantages, the reader is involved in the story a major character and addressed as” you”.
· Temporal conjunctions are also used.
· As the sentence introducers: Then,……. ; After that, ……. ; Finally, ……. etc.
· As time introducers (adverbial clauses: …… before ….. ; After ….. ; While ….. During ….. etc.

The example of Narrative:

                                                                          SNOW WHITE AND SEVEN DWARFS
Orientation                         Once upon the time the live a little girl named snow White.
Complication;                    Development of the crises One day she heard her uncle and aunt talking
                                           About leaving Snow White in the castle because They both wanted to go
                                           to American and they Didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.
Resolution of the crises     Snow White did not want her uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it
                                           would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away into the
                                           woods Complication; Development of the crises Then she saw this little
                                           cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell
                                           asleep Resolution of the crises Mean while, she seven dwarfs were
                                           coming home from work They went inside. There they found Snow White
                                           sleeping. Then Snow White woke up She saw the dwarfs said, “What is
                                           your name? Snow White said, “My name is Snow White” And, one of the
                                           dwarfs, said, “If you wish, You my live here with us. Snow White said,
                                           “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the hole 
                                           story and snow white and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.
 Malin Kundang
            Once upon time, there was a boy named Malin Kundang. He lived with his mother in a very poor condition. They looked fire wood in the forest nearly to make a living. Malin Kundang was so unsatisfied with their bad luck. That’s why he decided to go to another city to look for a better life. Not long afterwards, Malin asked his mother’s permission to go to a big city. He promised to come back soon with much money. His mother permitted him and always prayed for him. In his journey, Malin Kundang joined a merchant in a big ship. Actually, Malin was a diligent boy. He worked hard to get much money and everything changed. He became a rich merchant. His business partner asked him to marry his daughter. Malin agreed. Then Malin and his business partner’s daughter got married. They had honeymoon and traveled all over the world. Many years later, Malin’s ship anchored in his village. Many villagers welcome his arrival and admired his glorious ship. Furthermore, they wanted to see his success. Malin’s mother heard that her son had come back. She was very glad and eager to see him. With a happy smile in her lips, she went to the seashore to meet her son. Do you know what happened when she met Malin? He pretended that he didn’t know her. Of course she was very very sad and disappointed. In her desperation she cried to God to punish Malin. She cursed Malin Kundang and his ship to be a stone. Since then, people can see the big stone in the beach.

NEWS ITEM 

Definition:
News Item is text which used to inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important. We often find it in a newspaper because the passage often tells the readers about great, important, interesting, tragic, entertaining or fresh incident or events that all people should know about it

Purpose: To inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

Generic Structure:
1. Newsworthy event(s): recount the event in summary form.
2. Background event(s): elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstance
3. Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event

Language Features:
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.
3. Uses of material processes to retell the event. (mental process is ….)
4. Use of projecting verbal process in sources stage
 ———————————————— 

The examples of News Item:
TOWN CONTAMINATED 
Newsworthy Event:
Moscow: A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town

Background/ Elaboration:
Velena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explotion of a nuclear submarine at the nava bas of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chaernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall – out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor class submarine during a refit had been a thermal and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.

Sources: A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.
————————————————— 

SUPREME COURT REJECTS DICKY’S APPEAL 
Newsworthy Event:
JAKARTA: The Supreme Court has upheld the 2006 graft conviction of Dicky Iskandar Di Nata, the former president director of PT Brocolin International.

Background :
Dicky was found guilty by the South Jakarta Distric Court of misusing Rp 1.9 trillion in funds from Bank BNI, which he claimed was a “grant from an Israeli investor”. The court sentenced him to 20 years in prison.

Sources: “We have rejected Dicky’s appeal. Therefore, he must serve his 20- years prison and pay a fine 0f Rp 500 million ( US $ 55,000),” presiding justice Artidjo Alkostar was quoted by Detic.com news portal as saying Thursday- JP.

—————————————————– 

Undersea earthquake strikes off Maluku 
JAKARTA (AP): A strong earthquake struck in eastern Indonesian waters on Tuesday, a meteorological agency said.

A local official said there was no threat of a destructive tsunami, and no damage or causalities were immediately reported. The quake, which had a preliminary magnitude of 6.1, was centered beneath the Banda Sea around 188 kilometers (117 miles) southwest of Ambon, the capital of Maluku province, the U.S. Geological Survey said on its Web site.

The tremor was not felt by residents in the region and there were no reports of damage or casualties, said Aprilianto, an official at a Jakarta-based local Meteorological and Geophysics Agency.


PROCEDURE
Social Function
To help readers how to do or make something completely

Generic Structure:
1. Goal/Aim
2. Materials/Equipments
3. Steps/Methods

Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms

The example of Procedure Text:
How to Play a DVD Movie Steps: 
1. First, turn on the TV and DVD player. Make sure that the Movie and DVD player have been
    connected.
2. Next, put the DVD movie disc into DVD player
3. After that push play or on/off and wait for a few seconds until the DVD player reads the disc.
4. Finally, set up the volume and the Movie is ready to be watched.

 How to Make Peanut Crunch 
What you’ll need : 
· 1 cup of peanuts 
· 3 cups of brown sugar 
· 2 tablespoons of vinegar 
· 1 cup of water 

What to do : 
· Place the sugar, water and vinegar into a large saucepan. 
· Stir slowly over a low heat until the sugar is disolved 
· Add peanuts , increase the heat and allow to boil 
· Remove from the heat when the nuts have craked and the mixture appears golden brown 
· Allow bubbles to settle spoon into small paper patty cases or pour the mixture into a flat greased 
  pan and mark into bite-size pieces. 

 RECOUNT 

Definition 
Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from Narrative 

Purpose 
To retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event 

Types of Recount 
· Personal recount ( retelling of an activity that the speaker/writer has been personally involved) e.g. 
   oral anecdote, diary entry, biography 
· Factual recount (recording the particulars of an incident e.g. police report, news report) 
· Imaginative recount (taking on an imaginary role and giving details of events) e.g. a day in the life 
  of 

Generic Structure of Recount 
1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time 
2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 
3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 

Language Features of Recount 
• Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc 
• Using chronological connection; then, first, etc 
• Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc 
• Using action verb; look, go, change, etc 
• Using simple past tense 

NOTE: 
Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. 

The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. 
Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict, social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure 

The example of Recount Text: 
The First Day in My School 
Two days ago, exactly on Monday, I went to SMAN 03 Kotabumi for the first time. I went there by motorcycle. Because I did not know where that school was, I was so afraid if I would go ashtray and be late. After having arrived at SMAN 03 Kotabumi, I did not find any friend of mine. I thought whether I was in the right place or not. A few minutes later, one of my friends came and he was followed by all my friends who had teaching training there. 

Before I joined the flag ceremony, I had gone to library. I could see many new things there such as a great magazine “PIONEER”, newspaper, wise words, etc. Then, a teacher asked me to go out and join the flag ceremony. Joining it, I got a new thing, a teacher greeted students using English in ceremony. Then, a teacher explained to me about SMAN 03 Kotabumi and showed me all facilities there. I thought this school was different from other school which I had found before. I decided to do the best in my teaching training in this school. 
 CLASS PICNIC 
Last Friday our school went to Centennial Park for a picnic First our teachers marked the rolls and the we got on the buses. On the buses, everyone was chatting and eating. When we arrived at the park, some students played cricket, some played cards but others went for a walk with the teachers. At lunchtime, we sat together and had our picnic. Finally, at two o’clock we left for school. We had a great day. 
 WHAT I DID ON SATURDAY 
I went to the swimming pool on Saturday with my grandma and grandad. Grandma bought me a new swimming costume as a treat and I wanted to wear it. First of all I went in the changing rooms with grandma and got changed. You have to put your clothes in a little locker and then you put 10p in so you can lock it. I had to put the key on a band round my ankle. Next we went into the water. Grandad sat on the side to watch us but grandma and I went down the steps into the water. It was very cold and grandma made me jump up and down to get warm. If I wear my arm bands I can nearly swim a width. Grandma can’t swim at all. Then I got dressed and grandma and grandad bought me a coke and a bag of chips. It was nice because you could sit and eat and watch the swimmers at the same time. I learned the way to do the arm and leg movements for breast stroke. I’m going to lay on my bed and practise this every day. Next time I go to the pool I might be able to swim.

REPORT 

Report Text
Definition
Report text is a text that is used to describe things in general. If you want to know about definitions or descriptions about something, for instance animals, plants, natural fenomena, buildings, etc. you may open a text book or other reference books like dictionary or encyclopedia. This type of text is called a report text. Report texts can also be found in information leaflets, research paper, newspaper articles and investigation report. That’s why the purpose of a report text is to present information about something in general. Passive sentence is one of the language feature of the report text. For more understanding look at the following explanation.

Purpose
To describe the ways things are, such as: a man-made things, animals, and plants.

Generic Structure:
1. General classification Introduce the topic of the report, such as the classification or sub-
    classification
2. Identification/ Description It describes the thing that will be discussed in detail. It describes the
    phenomenon in terms of parts (and their functions), qualities, habits or behaviors and way of                survival (for living things

Language Features:
· Generalized participants: a whole class of things (volcanoes, newspapers, the royal family)
· Action verbs/material processes
· Simple present tense. It states general thing, like: comodo dragon usually weight more tha 160 kg.
· Language for defining, classifying, comparing, contrasting (are called, belong to, can be classified
  as, are similar to, are more powerful than)
· May contain technical vocabulary e.g. water contains oxygen and hydrogen
· Is written in a formal and objective style

NOTE:
Report texts do not only related with definitions and descriptions of fruits and animals, but also discuss about other things that can be classified and described in general. For example, we can talk about vehicles, buildings, computers, and many others, both concrete and abstract. Even you may discuss about professions. Below is another example of a report text.

The example of Report Text:

Australia 
Australia is a large continent. It has six states and two territories. The capital city of Australia is Canberra. It is in the Australian Capital Territory. The population of Australia is about 20 million. The first inhabitants to live in Australia were Aboriginal people. After that people came from all over the world. The main language is English, however many other languages are spoken. There are many plants and animals that are only found in Australia, e.g. kangaroos, platypuses, gum trees and Waratahs. The main products and industries are wool, minerals, oil, coal, cereals and meat. Some famous landmarks are the Harbour Bridge, the Opera House and Uluru (Ayers Rock).
Drugs 
Drugs are chemical substances. There are three different types of drugs: stimulants, depressants and hallucinogens. Stimulants speed up the central nervous system. They increase heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. Examples are caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, ecstasy and cocaine. Depressants slow down the central nervous system. They decrease heart and breathing rates. Alcohol, heroin and analgesics are common examples of these types of drugs. Hallucinogens change mood, thought and senses. LSD is the most well-known example of this type of drug.
A traditional market 
A traditional market is the type of market where people can bargain the prices. The items sold in traditional market are basically the same. They are fruits, vegetables, meat and fish, spices, dry good and household items. At the glances, the market may seem to be disorganized mess. Surrounding the market there are many small scale traders, usually selling fruits. This traders can not afford the cost of renting a stall inside the market. On the first floor of the market, there are permanent kiosks and stall selling textile, stationery, clothing, electronic goods, household appliances, gold shops, etc. On the second floor, people can buy meat and fish, fruits, vegetables, and dry goods. The sellers sell fruits and vegetables through the middle area. Meanwhile they sell dry goods in the edge area of the second floor

Report Text Analysis: White pelican
General Classification
The white pelican is one of the most successful fish eating birds. The success is largely due to its command hunting behavior. A group, perhaps two dozen birds, will gather in curved are some distance offshore. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them. Description When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish, the formation breaks up as its meal. As the bird lifts its head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds, Foss is of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.

REVIEW
Purpose:
To critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience
Examples: work of arts include: movies, TV shows, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concerts and ballets

Generic Structure:
– Orientation: Place the work in its general and particular context, often by comparing it with others
   of its kind or through analogue with a non-art object or event.
– Interpretive Recount Summarizes the plot and/or provides an account of how the reviewed
   rendition of the work came into being; is optional, but if present, often recursive.
– Evaluation (It can be more than one evaluation) provides an evaluation of the work and/or its
   performance or production; is usually recursive
– Evaluative summation (Summary) provides a kind of punch line which sums up the reviewer’s
   opinion of the art event as a whole; is optional.

Language features:
· Focus on Particular Participants (Participant tertentu)
· Direct expression of options through use of Attitudinal Epithets in nominal groups; qualitative
  Attributes and Affective Mental Processes
· Use Adjectives showing attitude, e.g.: good, bad, etc.
· Use of long and complex clauses
· Use of metaphorical language (e.g., the wit was there, dexterously pingponged to and fro …)

The example of Review Text:
Get Married 
 Illustrating the current situation happening in Indonesia, Get Married presents the figures of unemployment. A few big-name celebrities show up in cameo roles. The movie tells about a true friendship of four youngsters Mae (Nirina Zubir), Guntoro (Desta ‘Club Eighties’), Eman (Aming), dan Beni (Ringgo Agus Rahman) who judge themselves as the most frustrated people in Indonesia. Soon, they turn out to be street kids and spend most of their times at street, bullying people who pass by. . Suddenly, it comes to a moment when Mae is persuaded to grant her parents’ wish to have a grandchild. Mae’s parents, (Meriam Bellina dan Jaja Mihardja) firmly state that Mae must get married in a little while. Soon, they are busy finding candidates who would marry their only daughter. However, along the process of finding the right one for Mae, the three male friends of Mae turn out to be brutal evaluators for the candidates. In the mean time, Mae falls badly in love with Rendy (Richard Kevin), a rich, handsome and kind-hearted man. Unfortunately Rendy, Mae, Guntoro, Eman, Beni are brought into a misunderstanding, and soon fights break out between the two groups of Mae and Rendy. Written based on some of youngsters’ real-life brotherhood experiences—this story will stir you to your emotional core while bringing out your sense of brotherhood. There are a lot of little things and big things that make this movie worth watching. The story is good, the banter is great, the relationships between the characters are great, and it’s a fun time at the movies. While some of the jokes are amusing, some of the fights go on a few bit too long. Harry Potter – Order the Phoenix Orientation I absolutely love the Harry Potter series, and all of the books will always hold a special place in my heart. Evaluation 1 I have to say that of all of the books, however, this was not my favorite Evaluation 2 When the series began it was as much of a “feel good” experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The stories were bright, fast-faced, intriguing, and ultimately satisfying. Interpretative Recount (tafsiran) Order of the Phoenix is different kind of book. In some instances this works … you feel a whole new; level of intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. I was truly move by the last page. Other time the book just has a slightly dreary, depressing feel. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here, and parts of it do seem long, as if were reading all about Harry “just hanging out” instead of having his usual adventures. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house, for example-house keeping is still housekeeping, magical or no, and I’m not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. Summary A few other changes in this book-the “real” world comes much more in to play rather than fantasy universe of the previous books, and Harry is apparently been taken off his meds. I know that he has a lot of to be grumpy in this book, especially with being a teenager and all, but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. He goes from being a warm-hearted, considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend’s heads off over nothing. It just seemed like it didn’t fit with his character, like he turned into a walking cliché of the “angry teen” overnight. The “real” story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book, and this part I loved. I actually liked the ending (and yes, I cried) as sad as it was. I packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Still a really good book, with some editing it would have been great.  

SPOOF 

Purpose:
It is used to tell an odd and funny event based on the real life. Spoof is aimed at entertaining the readers and It is usually ended by an unexpected event (TWIST).

Generic Structure:
· Orientation (Pengenalan): provides information about the setting (when and where) and introduces
   participants/character (who)
· Events(Rekaman Peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan yang biasanya disajikan dengan urutan
   kronoligis): tell what happened, in temporal sequence (personal comment/expression of
   evaluation).
· Twist(Unexpected Ending or Funny)

Language Features:
· Focus on person, animal, certain thing
· Use of action verbs, e.g.: run, eat, etc.
· Using adverbs of time and place
· Use of Simple Past Tense
· Told in chronological order
· ction verbs/material processes (went, slept, ran, caught, arrived, bought, looked at) E.g. He went to
  the zoo; She was happy.
· Temporal sequence (on Friday, one day, at the beginning, in the end, first, then, next, before, later,
   finally, etc)

The example of Spoof:

One day, two villagers went to Jakarta. They went to the biggest mall and saw shiny silver walls that could open and move apart and back together. They were amazed when an old lady rolled in to the small room and the doors closed. A minute later, the doors opened and a young beautiful lady stepped out. The father said to his son “Go, get your mother now.” The ending of the story is funny because they thought that the doors can change an old lady into a young beautiful lady. Whereas the doors were actually elevator doors. Spoof Text Analysis Aren’t you his mother?

Orientation: (who, when, where)
A young boy was playing with a ball in the street.He kicked it too had, and it broke the window of a house and fell inside. A lady came to the window with the ball and shouted at the young boy, so he ran away, but he still wanted his ball back.

Event 1: A few minutes later he returned and knocked at the door of the house. When the lady
              answered it, he said,”My father’s going to come and fix your window very soon.”
Event 2: After a few more minutes a man came to the door with the tools in his hand, so the lady let
              the boy take his ball away.
Event 3: When the man finished the window, he said to the lady,”That wil cost you exactly ten
              dollars.

Twist (the funny part): “But aren’t you the father of that young boy?”the woman asked looking
                                     surprised,”No.” he answered, equally surprised,”Aren’t you his mother?” A
                                     Bumpy Flight

Orientation:
“This is your captain speaking. We have had a failure in one of our engines. There is no cause for alarm as we still have three engines left. Unfortunately this means that we will be one hour late.”

Event 1: A short time later the captain again spoke to the passengers:”There is no cause for alarm,
              but we have just lost another engine. We will no be two hours late.”
Event 2: When the captain spoke to the passengers for the third time, he again had bad news. “Ladies
              and gentlemen, I assure you that we are in no danger, but I must inform you that we have
              had another engine failure. This means that we will now be three hours late.
Event 3: Finally, the captain announced that the fourth engines had failed.

Twist:   One of the passengers turned to another passenger and said,”Oh no. That means we’ll be
             four hours late.

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