Bahan ajar

1. Offering Help/service
2. Giving good or bad news
3. Getting someone's attention
4. Letter of Application
5. Captions/cutlines
6. Factual Report
7. Giving Advice/suggestion
8. Describing Fact and Opinion
9. Announcing News
10. Conditional Sentence/Subjunctive
11. Procedural text
12. Songs


Formal Greeting
- Good morning
- Good afternoon
- Good evening
- Good night
- Hello, how are you ?

- Hello
- Hello, good afternoon
- Good evening
- Good night
- I’m fine thank you.
- I am very well thank you.
- Not too bad
- I’m unwell
- Not very well.

Informal Greeting
- Hi, how’s life ?
- What’s news ?
- How’s everything ?
- How’s business ?
- Good to see you.
- How are things with you ?
- How are you going on ?

- Terrific / Greet and you ?
- Just fine thank you
- All right thanks
- Pretty well. What about you ?
- All right, thanks. What about
  you ?

Saying good bye
- Bye
- See you
- Good bye
- See you soon
- See you again
- Till we meet again
- See you later
- See you tomorrow
- See you tonight
- See you next time
- Etc.

- So long
- Good bye
- Keep in touch
- See you

  1. INTRODUCING / BEING INTRODUCED (perkenalan/diperkenalkan):

Here are some phrases and the responses for formal introduction.
Formal Introduction
- Good morning. My name is……..
- Please allow me to introduce myself
  ? I am........
- May I introduce myself ? I am …….
- How do you do ? My name is…..
- Let me introduce myself. My name 
- Good morning, may I introduce our 
  here. His name is……
- Mr……this is……..my friend in this

- Good morning, how do you do
- How do you do. Nice to meet  
- Oh, Hello, nice to meet you.
- I am pleased to see you.
- I am glad to know you.
- Nice meeting you too.
- How do you do Mr /  
  Mrs….Nice to 
  meet you. My name is….
- My name is…..
- Etc.

Here are some phrases and the responses for informal introduction
Informal Introduction
- Hello, I am ………
- Hi, I am…….
- Let me introduce my friend, her
  name is Ana
  Ana this is Chris my friend here
- Have you met my friend , Oky.
- Hi, I am….
- Hello, I am……
- Hello Ana, glad to meet you

- Hello Oky. I am Ana.

  1. THANKING (terima kasih)

- Thank you
- Thanks a lot
- Many thanks
- Thank you very much
- Thank you for your kindness
- Thank you very much for….
- I’d like to express my gratitude to  
- I appreciate your kindness.
- I am the most grateful to you for…
- That’s very kind of you.

- You are welcome
- Not at all
- It’s my pleasure
- Don’t mention it
- I am glad you like it
- That’s all right.

  1. CONGRATULATING AND THE RESPONSES (ucapan selamat dan jawabannya):

- Congratulation
- I’d like to be the first to  
  congratulate you on.......
- Fantastic / Terrific!
- Well done / nice one
- Congratulation on your success
- Congratulation on your promotion
- Congratulation on the birth of  
  your son
- Congratulation on your  18th  
- Etc.
- Thank you
-  It’s nice of you to say so
- Thank you very much for  
   saying so

    perintah, larangan & permohonan):

Here are examples of expressing commands, prohibitions and requests:
- Will you open it please ?
- Could you help me please ?
- Would you hold on a moment please ?
- Please sit down!
- Sit down please !
- Keep quite would you please !
- Would you be quite please ?
- Would you please come on time ?
- Would you mind opening the door please ?
- Don’t disturb me please !
- Don’t go home please !
- Please don’t smoke here !
- Don’t ever cheat!
- Don’t be naughty!
- Don’t be careless !
Responses for command. Prohibition and request :
A. Possitive response :
- Yes of course
- Certainly
- Sure
- All right
- All right, I won’t
- Trust me
- That’s OKEY
- No, that’s all right (khusus jawaban would you mind)

B. Negative response :
- I’m sorry I can’t
- Sorry I can’t
- I am sorry but I have to ….
- I am afraid I can’t

6.EXPRESSING FEELING (mengungkapkan perasaan):

Here are some adjectives to express the feeling :
- hopeless           = putus harapan             - crazy              = gila
- sad                  = sedih                           - frustrated        = frustasi
- happy              = bahagia                        - confused        = bingung
- glad                 = senang                         - excited           = senang/gembira
- anxious            = cemas                          - nervous          = gugup                      
- high spirited     = semangat tinggi             - low spirit        = lemah semangat
- angry               = marah                           - terrific            = hebat
- excellent           = bagus sekali                  - wonderful      = heran
- terrible             = buruk, menyiksa                              
- thankfull           = berterimakasih         

Adjectives ending in -ING (active):             Adjective ending in –ED (passive):             
- Boring            = membosankan                      -Bored             = bosan
- Confusing      = membingungkan                  -Confused       = bingung
- Exciting         = menggembirakan                  -Excited          = gembira
- Worrying        = mengkhawatirkan                -Worried          = khawatir
- Embarrassing = memalukan                           -Embarrassed  = malu
- Tiring             = melelahkan                           -Tired              = lelah
- Fascinating     = menarik                                -Fascinated   = tertarik
- Amusing        = menggelikan                         -Amused         = geli/lucu
- Astonishing    = mengagumkan                      -Astonished  = kagum
- Shocking        = men. rasa takut/prihatin       -Shocked      = takut/prihatin
- Disgusting      = menjijikan                            -Disgusted      = jijik
- Horrifying      = mengerikan                          -Horrified        = ngeri
- Terrifying       = menakutkan                         -Terrified        = takut
- Frightening    = menakutkan                         -Frightened   = takut
- Depressing     = menyedihkan                       -Depressed     = sedih
- Annoying       = mengesalkn                         -Annoyed         = terganggu/kesal
- Satisfying       = memuaskan                          -Satisfied         = puas
- Disappointing   = mengecewakan               -Disappointed = kecewa
- Impressing     = mengesankan                       -Impressed     = terkesan
- Frustrating     = memb.tdk puas(kesal)     -Frustrated   = tidak puas/frusasi
- Amazing        = menakjubkan                        -Amazed         = takjub
- Exhausting     = sangat melelahkan            -Exhausted      = sangat lelah
- Interesting     = menarik                             -Interested       = tertarik

7. OFFERING, ACCEPTING, AND REFUSING (penawaran, menerima dan  
    menolak) :

Offering :
-Would you like to go out for dinner ?
-Would you care to dance Mrs Brent ?
-Would you like desert ?
-What about dance Denise ?
-Do you want me to clean the machine ?
-Should I get food for the picnic ?

Accepting an offer :
-I’d love to
-That would be nice
-OK, sound great
-Yes, please
-Just what I need

Refusing an offer :
-Sorry I can’t
-Sorry, I can’t. Thanks anyway.
-No, I can’t
-Thanks but I….
-No, it’s Ok. Thanks
-No, it’s all right really

8. ASKING FOR AND GIVING PERMISSION (minta dan memberi ijin) :

Asking for permission :
-Do you mind if I leave now
-May I come in ?
-Could I ………, please ?
-Excuse me, could I try to turn on the computer ?
-I wonder if I could borrow your camera?
Giving permission (positive response):
-By all means                              -Yes, of course                Not at all
-Go ahead                                    -Yes that’s fine
-Yes, why not                              -Yes certainly
-All right please do                     - Etc.
Refusing permission  (negative response):
-I’m afraid you can’t do that
-You’re not allowed to…..
-You should not……
-No, I am sorry you can’t

9. EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY (mengungkapkan kemungkinan) :

(+) Positive :
(-) Negative :
-It’s possible
-It’s likely
-There ‘s a good chance
-It looks like
-I’ll probably
-It’s impossible
-It’s not likely/unlikely
-I’m sorry but I don’t think it’s possible
-It doesn’t look as though

10. EXPRESSING WANTS AND NEEDS (mengungkapkan keinginan dan   

Some expressions used for telling wants and needs are :
-I’d like to have some rest
-I need some money
-May I have a cup of coffee
-What I need is
-May I have a needle and thread
-I want some paper to write a letter.
-I’d like some music
-I wish I could have a new car
-To make a cup of coffee, I need a cup, a saucer, sugar, coffee, spoon, creamer, and hot
The responses to someone’s wants / needs are :
-Of course here it is
-Let’s do it
-Let’s get it
-Sorry, I can’t provide it for you

11. EXPRESSING REGRETS AND APOLOGIES (mengungkapkan penyesalan
      dan minta ma’af ):

Asking for forgiveness :
Responses :
-I am sorry
-Please forgive me
-I’m really sorry
-Please accept my apologies
-I really must apologize for …..
-I’m extremely sorry for ……

-That’s OK
-It’s all right
-Don’t worry . It’s ok
-It doesn’t matter to you
-It’s never mind

12. EXPRESSING / SHOWING SYMPHATY (mengungkapkan / menunjukan
      simpati ) :

Expressions to show symphaty :
The responses :
-Are you sure, you’re OK ?
-Is anything the matter ?
-Please don’t worry about it
-Everything will be fine
-Can I do something for you ?
-There’s nothing to worry about
-I’m sorry to hear that
-I’m deeply sorry to hear about
-What a pity
-Oh dear. I’m so sorry to hear that
-Please accept my condolences / symphaty
-I’m all right , thank you
-I’m OK, thanks
-Wish me luck
-Please pray for me
-I hope so thanks

13. EXPRESSING CAPABILITIES (mengungkapkan kemampuan) :

Expressions used in talking about capabilities :
-Can you swim to cross this river ?
-When I was a small boy I could jump over theat big stone
-I can speak French quite well
-How well can you speak foreign language ?
-Are you able to finish the job ?
-How good are you at repairing machine ?
-Are you capable of taking care of this baby ?
The responses :
-Yes, I can swim quite well
-No, I can’t
-No, I am not able to…….
-No, I am not capable of……
-Yes, I am able to…..

14. EXPRESSING / ASKING PREFERENCES (mengungkapkan / menanyakan 
      pilihan ) :

Would rather……than
-I would rather play badminton than tennis
-I would rather stay at home than go to the movies
-She prefers apples to grapes
-They prefer playing volleyball to basketball
-We prefer singing to dancing
-Which would you prefer…….or……?
-Would you prefer……or……..?
-Would you prefer …..?
Like……better than
-My father likes tea better than coffee
-I like reading better than writing.
-Do you like………. better?
Answering preferences
-I like / enjoy ……..better than………
-Let’s do………first
-I find………is more interesting
-My preference would always………
-I’d rather………….,

15. AN INVITATION (undangan ):

Making Escuses
-Would you like to...
-Yes, I would
-Yes, I’d love to
-Yes, I’d like to
-That’s sound great
-Yes, I’d like to but 
  I can’t
-I’d love to but I
-Because I have to…..

16. BARGAINING (tawar menawar):

-How much is it ?
-How much are they ?
-How much is this shirt ?
-How much are these shoes ?
-How much does it cost ?
-How much does this book cost ?
-What does it cost ?
-What do they cost ?
-What is the price of……
-It’s five dollars
-They’re fifteen thousand rupiahs
-That’s ten dollar and fifty cents

17. EXPRESSING CERTAINTY (mengungkapkan kepastian):

-I’m certain you’ll get a seat on that one
-I’m sure you’ll get one on the 8 o’clock.
-The 17.00 flight is certainly full
-The 17.00 flight is definitely full
Probably (+)
-It’s likely that the 18.00 will be full
-The 18.00 flight is likely to be full
Probably (?)
-I may get a seat on the 7 o’clock
-I might get a seat on the 7 o’clock
Probably not(-)
-It’s unlikely that they will manage the 21st
-They’re unlikely to manage the 21st
Certainly not(--)
-There definitely won’t be a seat available on that flight
-You are sure      that I won’t get a seat

18. GIVING AND RESPONDING TO COMPLIMENTS (memberi dan menjawab    
      pujian) :

Giving Compliment:
Responding to Compliment:
-Well done
-That’s great
-Thank you
-Do you really think so ?
-It’s very kind of you to say that
-It’s nice of you to say so
-Thanks .I need that
-You’ve made my day

19. EXPRESSING OPINIONS (mengungkapkan pendapat):

Asking Opinions :
-What do you think of….
-How do you feel about…/How do you like…
-What’s your opinion of….
Giving Opinions :
-Well, if you ask me
           I think
           In my view
           In my opinion

today’s TV program ?

they’re terrible
            pretty good
           Most of the TV programs are waste of time
           There are quite a few good program
           There are many good news and good information

20. AGREE AND DISAGREE (setuju dan tidak setuju):

Agrement :
Disagreement :
-I think so
-I suppose so
-That’s (quite) true / right
-That’s (just) what I was thinking
-You’re (so) right
-I agree with you
-I am sure you are right
-That’s right
-Of course
-I don’t think so
-That’s not right, surely.
-You can’t mean that
-Surely not
-No way / Non sense
-I’m afraid, I can’t agree with….
-I couldn’t agree more
-I don’t agree
-I’m not sure
-I don’t like the idea
-No, you’re wrong

We agree with some of it but not all (kami setuju tapi tidak semua):

-I see your point
-Ye, maybe
-That’s a possibility
-You may be right

21. DESCRIBING PROCESS (menggambarkan proses):

Beginning :            - First(ly)….
- To start with….
-  Initially…..

Later Stages :        - Second(ly)….
                              - Third(ly)…..
- Fourth(ly)….
- Then…..
- Next…..
- After that…

Ending :                - Finally….
- Last(ly)…
- The last thing is….

22.GOOD WISHES (harapan baik):
Good Wishes
-Good luck !
-Every success with !
-All the very best !
-Enjoy yourself !
-Thanks….., You too.
-The same to you.

23. RECOMMENDATION /SUGGESTION (rekomendasi / saran ):

To make suggestion or give advice, we can use this pattern :
-How about / what about + Verb-ing…. ?
  What about taking a rest here ?
   How about going out for a walk ?
-Why don’t we / you + Verb-inf…..?
 Why don’t we cut the bolt ?
  Why don’t you go to the doctor soon ?
-S + SHOULD / OUGHT TO + Verb-inf. …..
  You should go to consult the doctor immediately
  You should help among others
  You ought to come on time
  You should always clean your hands before eating
  You should never use dirty tools.

24. EXPRESSING NECESSITY / A MUST (mengungkapkan keharusan):

-You must put away the tools before you go away.
-You have to study hard
-You must not walk on the grass
-You don’t have to go now
-You must not smoke here.
-You must never smoke here.

      yang dipakai untuk membuat dan menangani pesanan).
Making reservation :
Handling reservation :
-I’d like to book………. please.
-I would like to reserve……….
-Can I make a reservation……
-Could I reserve……
-I want to book……
-I’d like to make ……..
-Yes, sir. ………
-Yes, madam. ……
-I’m sorry sir. We’re full this weekend
-Yes, of course.
-I’m afraid that all….have been reserved
-Certainly sir.
-I am sorry. All……have been sold out

26. HANDLING COMPLAINT (menangani pengaduan/keluhan) :
Here are some expressions to handle complaints :
-I ‘m sorry to hear that
-I do apologize
-Please accept my apologies
-We were very sorry to hear about the problem.
-We regret that this problem has happened
-We apologize for the trouble.

27. MAKING ARRANGEMENT (membuat kesepakatan/ susunan acara) :
Here are some expressions for making arrangement :
A. Suggesting an appointment / date :
-What about + ing VERB……..?
-How about + ing VERB………?
-Why don’t we go to the cinema ?
B. Suggesting a time :
-Could you manage Tuesday ?
-Would Saturday suit you ?
-Are you free in the afternoon ?
C. Rejecting the suggestion :
-I’m sorry, I can’t make Tuesday
-Unfortunately I’m busy that day
-I’m afraid Tuesday’s out of the question.
D. Accepting the suggestion :
-That’s fine
-All right
E. Confirming the arrangement :
-I’ll see you there at 2 o’clock.
-Shall we say 2 o’clock ?
-I look forward to seeing you then.

28. DESCRIBING THINGS (Menggambarkan benda)
How does it look like ?
When you describe about things, you should explain about the shape, size, colour, weight, measurement,
and the material of them.
  * Circle = 
  * Rectangular =
  * Triangel =
  * Cube =
  * Cylinder =
  * Square =
- SIZE :
  * big =
  * little =
  * thick =
  * small =
  * medium =
  * large =
  * thin =
  * huge =
  * long =
  * short =
  * wide =
  * tall/high =
  * white =
  * yellow =
  * red =
  * blue =
  * green =
  * pink =
  * brown =
  * grey =
  * black =
  * purple =
  * orange =
  * redish =
  * yellowish =
  * light blue =
  * dark green =
  * cream coloured =
  * grain (gr) =
  * ounce (oz) =
  * pound (lb) =
  * ton =
  * kilogram =
  * metres =
  * inch =
  * yard =
  * foot/feet =
  * steel =
  * gold =
  * silver =
  * iron =
  * fabric =
  * satin =
  * plastic =
  * wood =
  * paper =
  * leather =
  * cotton =
  * flour = 
This is my English book.
The shape of it is ......
The size of it is .........
The colour of it is ......
The weight of it is around .........
This ........ is made of ...........


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